Congestive heart failure

Congestive heart failure

76-year-old female patient complains of weight gain, shortness of breath, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling. She has a history of congestive heart failure and admits to not taking her diuretic, as it makes her “have to get up every couple hours to go to the bathroom.” She now has to sleep on two pillows in order to get enough air.

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

  • The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

RUBRIC

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examing the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following:

Explain both the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes of why the patient presents these symptoms.

28 (28%) – 30 (30%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed reasons, with explanation for both the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate reasons, with explanation for both the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

23 (23%) – 24 (24%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague or inaccurate.

The response includes reasons for the cardiovascular and/or cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes, with explanations that are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.

0 (0%) – 22 (22%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague and inaccurate, or the description is missing.

The response does not include reasons for either the cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes, or the explanations are vague or based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.

Explain how the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes interact to affect the patient. 28 (28%) – 30 (30%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of how the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes interact to affect the patient.

25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of how the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes interact to affect the patient.

23 (23%) – 24 (24%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes interact to affect the patient.

0 (0%) – 22 (22%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes interact to affect the patient.

Explain any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning. 23 (23%) – 25 (25%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

20 (20%) – 22 (22%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

18 (18%) – 19 (19%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, and/or explanations based on inappropriate evidence/research.

0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, or the explanations are based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English Writing Standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

 

Answer

 

 

 

Congestive Heart Failure

 

Name

Professor

Course

Institution

Date of Submission

 

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes

Congestive heart failure also known as heart failure is a chronic condition whereby the heart doesn’t pump blood as it should (DeTurk & Cahalin, 2018). This results to blood backing up and the building up of fluid in the lungs. Cardiovascular disease is a heart condition that includes structural problems, blood clots and diseased blood vessels. It affects the circulatory system that supplies the body with blood. Some of the most common cardiovascular diseases include, heart failure, heart attack, stroke, arrhythmia and even heart valve complications (DeTurk & Cahalin, 2018). Some of the symptoms of cardiovascular disease include chest tightness, difficulty in catching your breath and fluid buildup.

Cardiopulmonary disease refers to a range of conditions affecting the heart and lungs (Pappano & Wier, 2019). Since they are closely related, a problem in one spills to the other. Common diseases associated with cardiopulmonary disease include chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and even congestive heart failure. Some of the symptoms associated with cardiopulmonary disease include chest pain, high blood pressure, dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea and sudden sweating (Pappano & Wier, 2019).

The patient shows several symptoms among them weight gain. When the heart does not pump blood throughout the body as it should, the result is building up of fluids in the lungs and legs. This leads to swelling in the ankles, legs and lungs which is a common symptom associated with cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiological processes (Pappano & Wier, 2019). This extra fluid in the body results to weight gain. The patient also complains of shortness of breath where at times she has to sleep on two pillows in order to get enough air. This is a result of the fluid buildup in the lungs. It can also be caused by cardiopulmonary processes where the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently and consequently reducing normal oxygen movement in lungs. The patient also experiences peripheral edema and abdominal swelling which involves swelling of lower legs, hands and stomach. This is also a result of the extra fluid buildup.

Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes Interaction to affect the Patient

Cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems work together to circulate blood and oxygen throughout the body. If the heart is damaged, it lacks the capability to pump enough of the blood it gets from the lungs. In case of such an occurrence, pressure builds up in the heart and pushes fluid into the lungs where it does not belong. This leads to swelling up of the lungs which leads to the patient experiencing breathing problems and shortness of breath. The extra fluid leads to the patient gaining extra weight, the peripheral edema and abdominal swelling. All these symptoms lead to the patient developing chronic heart failure or the on start of acute congestive heart disease.

Racial/Ethnic Variables that may Impact Physiological Functioning

According to Kronenfeld (2017) racial groups are unequally affected by diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality. This is because some racial groups receive less health care, have less access to resources or even live shorter lives in general. Racial health disparities refer to the gap in the quality of health care across racial and ethnic groups (Kronenfeld, 2017). For instance, most Hispanics and Latinos lack medical insurance and have higher rates of diabetes and obesity which are cardiovascular risk factors (Hackler et al., 2019). More so, smoking and other lifestyle habits put them at more risk. Unfortunately, heart disease is the second cause of mortality for this group. Racial and ethnic variables are also determined by age where some races or ethnic communities show decline in physiological functioning at younger ages compared to others. This may be attributed to the environments they grow up and live in as well as their jobs and exposure to health hazards. For instance, most Asians living in Asia live longer and healthier lives (Hackler et al., 2019). Genetic factors between racial groups is another variable. This is because genetic variations exist among different races. Evolutionary factors is another variable in that genes may be under strong selection in disease responses. Gene flow also has an effect on relationships between race-linked disorders. For instance, although African Americans are underprivileged when it comes to access to health care they have genetic factors that enable their bodies to handle most of the illnesses with ease. However, in the case of cardiovascular diseases, African-Americans have shown to have higher biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, antinuclear antibody, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, lower adiponectin and suppression of tumorigenicity-2 as compared to whites (Hackler et al., 2019). In addition, they have poor health access and poor living environments thus resulting in higher CVD deaths.

 

References

DeTurk, W. E., & Cahalin, L. P. (2018). Cardiovascular and pulmonary physical therapy: An        evidence-based approach. New York : McGraw-Hill Professional.

Hackler, E., Lew, J., Gore, M. O., Ayers, C. R., Atzler, D., Khera, A., Rohatgi, A., … de, L. J. A.      (September 17, 2019). Racial Differences in Cardiovascular Biomarkers in the General            Population. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8, 18.)

Kronenfeld, J. J. (2017). Health and health care concerns among women and racial and ethnic  minorities. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.

Pappano, A. J., & Wier, W. G. (2019). Cardiovascular physiology. Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier

 

0 replies

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *