Orem’s Self-Care Model and Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Orem’s Self-Care Model and Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Instructions for completing Critique: Conceptual Nursing Framework

Of the conceptual frameworks listed in Table 1, your group should select 5 to further explore. You may use your Alligood text and/or other available eBooks on nursing theorists (found on The Library Guide for NUR 18200). These texts have reference lists that are helpful as well, if you’d like to dig deeper in understanding a particular conceptual framework. Several nurse theorists even have their own websites!

 

Complete Table 2 (Selected Conceptual Frameworks: Basic Assumptions and Concepts Defined), providing a brief summary of basic assumptions and how concepts are defined for each of the 5 conceptual frameworks. From these 5 conceptual frameworks, select 1 conceptual framework from Table 2 and complete Table 3 (Selected Conceptual Framework: Conceptual Framework Evaluation Criteria Applied). The 5 criteria in Table 3 are to be used to evaluate and critique your selected conceptual framework. The criteria are also presented in Week 3: Presentations, “Theory Evaluation Criteria.” Explain your answers to the questions posed in the critique, providing rationales and examples (i.e., provide more than “yes” or “no” in your responses).

 

Provide a reference list of the resources you used to complete this assignment.

Table 1: Nursing Paradigms, Features, and Conceptual Frameworks

Nursing

Paradigm

Particulate-Deterministic Interactive-Integrative

 

Unitary-Transformative
Features ·       Bio-psycho-social-cultural-spiritual being

·       Interacting with the environment

·       Reducible into parts

·       Causal relationships

·       Health-Illness decided by societal norms

·       Promote and maintain health and prevent disease

·       Diagnosis and treat human responses to health problems

·       Health is a state of biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual well-being

·       Nursing focuses on preventing disease, maintaining and promoting health according to societal norms

·       Reality is multidimensional and interactive

·       Entities are context-dependent and relative

·       Change is a function of multiple antecedent factors and probabilistic relationships

·       Relationships can be reciprocal

·       Both objective and subjective phenomena are studied, with emphasis on objectivity, control, and predictability

·       Irreducible/unitary whole (no parts)

·       In mutual process with the environment

·       Acausality

·       Focus is on patterns and experiences

·       Change is unpredictable, rhythmical, continuous

·       Persons are unfolding/becoming and moving toward increasing diversity

·       Health is a changing process of changing value priorities

·       Health is defined by the person

·       Nursing focuses on patterns, lived experiences, and quality of life

Conceptual Frameworks ·       Johnson’s Behavioral System Model ·       King’s Systems Model

·       Levine’s Conservation Model

·       Neuman’s Systems Model

·       Orem’s Self-Care Model

·       Roy’s Adaptation Model

·       Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relationships

·       Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings

·       Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness

·       Parse’s Human Becoming Theory

·       Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Fawcett, J. (2005). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Selected Conceptual Frameworks: Basic Assumptions and Concepts Defined

Conceptual Framework: Orem’s Self-Care Model
Basic Assumption:  
Person:  
Environment:  
Health:  
Nursing:  

 

 

Table 3: Selected Conceptual Framework: Conceptual Framework Evaluation Criteria Applied

Selected Conceptual Framework: Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

 

Criteria 1: Is the meaning of the conceptual framework clear and understandable?
Is the reason for developing the conceptual framework clear?  
Is it clear what the conceptual framework is about?  
What level of knowledge is needed to understand the language used in the conceptual framework?  
How does the theory compare to other theories with similar meanings?  

 

Criteria 2: Boundaries of the conceptual framework are consistent with nursing practice
Does the definition of nursing fit with other definitions of nursing?  
What aspects of nursing are addressed within the conceptual framework?  
Does the conceptual framework differentiate between nursing and other disciplines?  
Where does nursing take place?  
Are boundaries consistent with current nursing practice or a future vision of nursing practice?  

 

Criteria 3: Language is Understandable
Is the language used clear, consistent, and useful?  
Has conceptual framework been studied extensively (via research)?  
If abstract language is used, does it compromise the utility of the theory?  

 

Criteria 4: Major concepts of the conceptual framework are identified and defined
Are metaparadigm concepts clearly identifiable and defined?  
Are concepts related to nursing practice?  
Are the definitions of major concepts consistent with what we know of nursing practice?  
Are definitions consistent with other conceptual frameworks?  
Are concepts consistent with nursing and nursing practice?  

 

Criteria 5: Does the theoretical knowledge influence and demonstrate congruence with nursing practice?
Does the theoretical knowledge influence nursing practice?  
Is relationship between the theory and practice clear?  
Can conceptual framework inform your practice?  
Is theory congruent with nursing’s historical perspective, ethical standards, and social policy?  

Answer

 Conceptual Framework

Name

Professor

Course

Institution

Date of Submission

Orem’s Self-Care Model and Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Orem’s self-care model refers to all activities individuals carry out to maintain well-being, life and health. It is the ability to engage in personal self-care. However, it is limited by factors such as age, life experience, health and available resources (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2016).

Table 2: Selected Conceptual Frameworks: Basic Assumptions and Concepts Defined

Conceptual Framework: ·       Orem’s Self-Care Model

 

Basic Assumption: Major assumption associated with this theory is that people should be self-reliant or responsible for their care and should extend the same to others in their family who may need it (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2016).
Person: The theory focuses on performance of activities and practices people conduct on their own behalf.
Environment: The theory states that environmental conditions surrounding the person positively affect an individual’s ability to perform self-care (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2016).
Health: This refers to the wholeness and integrity that make a person human. This is in conjunction with psychophysiological and physiological mechanisms.
Nursing: The theory states that a human being with health related conditions and who is rendered incapable of continuous self-care,  should be the focus of nursing (Fraser, 2013).

 

Table 3: Selected Conceptual Framework: Conceptual Framework Evaluation Criteria Applied

Selected Conceptual Framework: Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

 

Criteria 1: Is the meaning of the conceptual framework clear and understandable?

Is the reason for developing the conceptual framework clear? Yes, the reason is clear as it not only helps cultivate sensitivity to self and others but also develops a helping trust relationship.
Is it clear what the conceptual framework is about? Yes, it explains that human beings should not be treated as objects (Fraser, 2013).
What level of knowledge is needed to understand the language used in the conceptual framework? Basic knowledge that humans should be treated with respect.
How does the theory compare to other theories with similar meanings? It compares in that caring has always been considered an integral and natural aspect of nursing (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2016).

 

Criteria 2: Boundaries of the conceptual framework are consistent with nursing practice

Does the definition of nursing fit with other definitions of nursing? Yes it does. For instance, it associates nursing with promoting health and caring for the sick (Fraser, 2013).
What aspects of nursing are addressed within the conceptual framework? Comforting, attentive, responsibility, patience
Does the conceptual framework differentiate between nursing and other disciplines? Yes it differentiates. This is in that it gives clear guidelines on how nurses should offer their services (Fraser, 2013).
Where does nursing take place? Nursing takes place in health care facilities or home-based care systems. This theory helps them take better care of their patients.
Are boundaries consistent with current nursing practice or a future vision of nursing practice? They are consistent with current nursing practices being that it focuses majorly on what surround the patient at the moment

 

Criteria 3: Language is Understandable

Is the language used clear, consistent, and useful? Yes. Language used is clear and easily understandable.
Has conceptual framework been studied extensively (via research)? Yes. For instance, research has focused carative factors such as: forming humanistic-altruistic value systems, cultivating a sensitivity to self and others, using problem solving for decision-making and developing a helping-trust relationship (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2016).
If abstract language is used, does it compromise the utility of the theory? It may not compromise the utility of the theory as intangible qualities lead to better understanding since they are associated with intellect.

Criteria 4: Major concepts of the conceptual framework are identified and defined

Are metaparadigm concepts clearly identifiable and defined? Yes, the four metaparadigm concepts (person, health, nursing and environment) have been clearly defined.

For instance, person promotes practice of satisfying human needs through human care. She also stated that in order for a person to be fully healed, a holistic approach focusing on the mind, body and soul is required (George, 2014).

Are concepts related to nursing practice? Yes the concepts are related. An example is that both are concerned with personal growth and general well-being of a person.
Are the definitions of major concepts consistent with what we know of nursing practice? Yes, they align with nursing practice concepts such as nurturing and practicing loving kindness with self and others.
Are definitions consistent with other conceptual frameworks? No, each concept varies between the conceptual frameworks
Are concepts consistent with nursing and nursing practice? Yes, the concepts are in line with both nursing and the nursing practice

 

Criteria 5: Does the theoretical knowledge influence and demonstrate congruence with nursing practice?

Does the theoretical knowledge influence nursing practice? Yes. The theoretical knowledge tends to better nurses and ease their decision making on what they should do and how.
Is relationship between the theory and practice clear? Yes, the relationship is clearly stipulated and states how nurses should take care of their patients (George, 2014).
Can conceptual framework inform your practice? Yes, it can as this theory provides a clear guideline to help patients learn how to care for themselves and those around them.
Is theory congruent with nursing’s historical perspective, ethical standards, and social policy? Yes, the theory clearly stipulates what is expected of nurses to their patients.

 

Summary

Conceptual framework refers to visual or written representations of expected relationships between properties that you want to study. According to Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, caring is central to nursing practice. It addresses how nurses express care to their patients. The theory also states that caring consists of carative factors. Watson’s theory has four major concepts; human being, society, health and nursing.

References

Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Whall, A. L. (2016). Conceptual models of nursing. Boston: Pearson Education.

Fraser, M. (2013). Conceptual Nursing in Practice: A Research-Based Approach. New York, NY: Springer.

George, J. B. (2014). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice. Harlow:Pearson

 

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