Overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms


The table below provides an overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms: Particulate-Deterministic; Interactive-Integrative; and Unitary-Transformative (Fawcett, 2005). Select nursing theories and models, referred to as “Conceptual Frameworks,” are identified and provide an overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms. Of the conceptual frameworks listed in the table, select one to explore further. You may use your Alligood text and/or the eBooks available on nursing theorists (found on the Library Guide for NUR 18200). These texts have reference lists that are helpful as well, if you’d like to dig deeper in understanding a particular conceptual framework. Several nurse theorists even have their own websites!

The conceptual framework you select is your choice. Perhaps you personally and professionally identify strongly with one of the nursing paradigms and you overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms. Each is like a “lens,” offering a certain way of viewing nursing phenomena. Chances are you already view nursing (and the world in general) according to one of the three nursing paradigms but just didn’t have a name for it…until now!

Nursing Paradigm Particulate-Deterministic Interactive-Integrative Unitary-Transformative
  • Bio-psycho-social-cultural-spiritual being
  • Interacting with the environment
  • Reducible into parts
  • Causal relationships
  • Health-Illness decided by societal norms
  • Promote and maintain health and prevent disease
  • Diagnosis and treat human responses to health problems
  • Health is a state of biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual well-being
  • Nursing focuses on preventing disease, maintaining and promoting health according to societal norms
  • Reality is multidimensional and interactive
  • Entities are context-dependent and relative
  • Change is a function of multiple antecedent factors and probabilistic relationships
  • Relationships can be reciprocal
  • Both objective and subjective phenomena are studied, with emphasis on objectivity, control, and predictability
  • Irreducible/unitary whole (no parts)
  • In mutual process with the environment
  • Acausality
  • Focus is on patterns and experiences
  • Change is unpredictable, rhythmical, continuous
  • Persons are unfolding/becoming and moving toward increasing diversity
  • Health is a changing process of changing value priorities
  • Health is defined by the person
  • Nursing focuses on patterns, lived experiences, and quality of life
Conceptual Framework
  • Johnson’s Behavioral System Model
  • King’s Systems Model
  • Levine’s Conservation Model
  • Neuman’s Systems Model
  • Orem’s Self-Care Model
  • Roy’s Adaptation Model
  • Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relationships
  • Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings
  • Newman’s Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness
  • Parse’s Human Becoming Theory
  • Watson’s Theory of Human Caring

Fawcett, J. (2005). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (2nd ed.). F.A. Davis Company.

Once you’ve selected a nursing conceptual framework, conduct a literature search to identify 2 published reports of clinical practice guided by the selected conceptual framework. You will describe each of the reports in your post. Please be sure to include clinical practice reports, not research reports. For example and to illustrate, please view these two articles:

End of Life Decision-Making- Watson’s Theory of Human Caring.pdf

Orem’s Self-Care Model with Multiple Sclerosis Patients’ Balance and Motor Function.pdf


The article using Watson’s Theory of Human Caring explains how the theory can be used to understand end-of-life situations in clinical practice. The article using Orem’s Self-care Model with MS uses the model to guide a research study. While research guided by nursing theory is very important, the intent with the discussion is for you to gain an understanding of clinical practice guided by nursing theory.

You should include the following:

  • Identify the nursing conceptual framework you chose to explore in-depth. Why did you choose it?
  • Select 2 published reports of clinical practice situations that were guided by your selected conceptual framework.
  • For each of the 2 reports, identify the clinical situation and clinical population. Then, describe how the author(s) of the report applied the conceptual framework to the clinical situation/population. Use examples to illustrate.
  • Explain how you can use your selected nursing conceptual framework to guide your own practice.

Overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms


Neuman’s Systems Model

Neuman’s systems model reflects on the nature of living organisms as open systems in interaction with each other and with the environment and presents an overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms (Alligood, 2014). According to this model, the client can be an individual, family, group, community or even a social entity. As such, each client system is composed of factors and characteristics within a given range of responses. Neuman describes a human being as comprising of five main variables: psychological, developmental, physiological, socio-cultural and spiritual variables (Alligood, 2014). The environment on the other hand, she defines as all internal and external forces surrounding a client, influencing and being influenced by the client at any point in time (Alligood, 2014). I chose this framework because it enables nurses provide holistic care to patients and their caregivers thus promoting health and wellness.

Article 1: Application of Betty Neuman Systems Model in Nursing Care of Patients with COVID-19 in relation to an overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms

This article highlights the use of Neuman’s model in nursing care for patients with COVID-19. Coronavirus disease is a highly infectious, pandemic disease which spreads through close contact or small droplets produced while coughing, sneezing or talking (Joshi Kumari &  Kumar, 2020). As such, patients have no direct interaction with their families during hospitalization and quarantine period. In the article, this framework was applied by identifying patient stressors and their reaction to them. For instance, the patient’s stress and anxiety related to his family was reduced by encouraging him to share his feelings and fears about the unknown.

Article 2: Application of the Betty Neuman systems model in the nursing care of patients/clients with multiple sclerosis

In this this article, the framework was applied in the nursing care of a patient with multiple sclerosis. The patient was taken through the model’s process of assessing stressors, diagnosis, outcome identification and planning, implementation and evaluation (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017). For instance, the nurses identified a physiological problem of difficulty in urination due to bladder nerve damage. To reduce the negative effects the patient was advised to avoid caffeine and to consume at least eight glasses of water during the day.

Application of the overview of features of the three Nursing Paradigms in my practice

I can use Neuman’s conceptual framework in my practice to make better clinical decisions by identifying all stressors facing a patient. Secondly, this model will guide my assistance to patients’ families thus promoting overall patient wellbeing. Finally, this model will help in providing comprehensive and holistic care for the client thus ensuring quick return to wellness state.


Ahmadi, Z., & Sadeghi, T. (September 01, 2017). Application of the Betty Neuman systems           model in the nursing care of patients/clients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis                Journal – Experimental, Translational and Clinical, 3, 3.)

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier     Health Sciences.

Joshi P., Kumari V., &  Kumar A. (September 14, 2020). Application of Betty Neuman Systems      Model in Nursing Cre of Patients with COVID-19. Annals of nursing and practice. Retrieved from: https://www.jscimedcentral.com/Nursing/nursing-7-1116.pdf




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