Drug offense

Read the article below and describe the social problem within the article that you would like to focus on. Tell us:

1. What is the problem, including a definition and who is affected

2. Why this issue is important to you

3. Do your own research to find at least one policy that has been proposed or passed at the federal level that addresses this problem. You might look at resources provided by an advocacy group such as NASW, www.congress.gov, or other trusted sources. Describe the policy, how it works (or would work), and whether you think it would help the problem or make it worse.




Sacco, L. (2014). Drug enforcement in the United States: History, policy, and trends. Congressional Research Office. R43749. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43749.pdf.



Article Review

The selected article focuses on drug offenses in society, such as distribution, possession, and abuse. Drug offense is a broad term for drug-related crimes, such as the manufacture, distribution, and use of controlled substances (Sacco, 2014). In the United States, drug offenses problem affects multiple individuals and groups. However, the youth are the most affected.

Drug offense issue is important to me as it has affected me at a personal level as well. I have had many friends and family members lose themselves to drugs, and I understand its impact. There are many reasons to be concerned. First, drug trafficking and abuse affect the physical and mental health of young people. Second, it facilitates the exposure of young children to drugs, creating a cycle that may proceed for generations. Third, it affects the functioning of individuals within society. Finally, its ripple effects are massive. Drug abuse/offense is thus an important topic that requires national attention.

The federal and state governments have taken actions to control many intoxicating substances. The federal government has proposed and passed multiple policies in this regard. One such policy is the “Stop Injection Sites for Illegal Drugs Act of 2022.” This bill was proposed and introduced but is yet to be passed in the Senate. The policy prohibits providing facilities for the unlawful use of controlled substances (Congress.gov, n.d.). It would work by limiting funding to states with such facilities, forcing state and local governments to shut them down to receive federal aid. In shutting down such facilities, the regular use of controlled substances may decline. Although it is a good policy to discourage controlled substance use and emphasize the government’s position on drug crimes, I do not think this would be an effective strategy. People can use illegal substances from other locations; their homes, cars, and other private property. This policy will thus not hinder drug use.


Congress.gov. (n.d.). Summary: H.R.7029 — 117th Congress (2021-2022). Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/7029?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22drug%22%2C%22enforcement%22%5D%7D&s=2&r=91

Sacco, L. N. (2014). Drug Enforcement in the United States: History, Policy, and Trends. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.


childhood-onset fluency disorder (Stuttering)

Areas of importance you should address, for a patient  with  childhood-onset fluency disorder (Stuttering)but are not limited to, are:

  • Signs and symptoms according to the DSM-5-TR
  • Differential diagnoses
  • Incidence
  • Development and course
  • Prognosis
  • Considerations related to culture, gender, age
  • Pharmacological treatments, including any side effects
  • Nonpharmacological treatments
  • Diagnostics and labs
  • Comorbidities
  • Legal and ethical considerations
  • Pertinent patient education considerations


Childhood-onset fluency disorder

  1. Introduction
  1. Childhood-onset fluency disorder, commonly referred to as stuttering, affects a child’s speech fluency (Ali et al., 2019).
  1. Signs and Symptoms according to Ali et al. (2019)
  1. Sound repetition, blocks in speech, interjections, speech hesitations, and tension when stuttering, such as facial grimaces.
  2. There is anxiety when required to speak due to the limitations of effective communication
  3. Social participation is limited
  4. There may be low academic or occupational performance
  1. Differential diagnoses of Childhood-onset fluency disorder
  1. Cluttering or apraxia of speech
  2. Patients have irregular speaking rates, disorganized speech, and difficulty coordinating articulation
  3. Often co-occurs with stuttering or other speech disorders
  • A speech-language pathologist looks at speech and language evaluations (Deb et al., 2022).
  1. Autism disorder
  2. Affected individuals may have delayed speech development
  3. May have difficulties comprehending language
  • May struggle with social communication
  1. However, not everyone with autism has speech problems (Deb et al., 2022).
  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder
  3. Characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
  4. Commonly diagnosed in childhood and can persist into adulthood
  • Childhood-onset fluency disorder can co-occur with other conditions like learning disabilities, anxiety, or depression (Deb et al., 2022).
  1. Speech, motor, or sensory deficit
  2. It is biological and may affect speech (Deb et al., 2022).
  3. Neurological dysfunctions like stroke, tumor, and trauma
  4. Stroke may affect speech
  5. Trauma in the brain may affect speech functions
  • Disease or injuries to the brain can trigger Childhood-onset fluency disorder (Deb et al., 2022).
  1. Incidence
  1. Transient developmental stuttering may be present in 5% of children at some point during their speech.
  2. Persistent stuttering affects 1% of the population
  3. Boys are more likely to develop the disorder than girls (Sommer et al., 2021).
  1. Development and course, according to Ali et al. (2019)
  1. The exact cause is unknown
  2. It may be genetic or environmental
  3. Develops during childhood between 2 and 6 years and persists into adulthood
  4. Transient developmental stuttering is common (Sommer et al., 2021).
  5. Persistent developmental stuttering is uncommon, making it the focus of treatment and diagnosis.
  6. Development and course depend on an individual
  7. For some, it may come and go
  8. For others, it is more persistent and severe even in adulthood (Ali et al., 2019)

Prognosis, according to Ali et al. (2019)

  1. Prognosis also varies
  2. Treatment may improve the disorder for some children
  3. Treatment may not work in other cases
  4. Early interventions result in better outcomes

Considerations related to culture, gender, and age

  1. Culture affects children’s willingness to talk.
  2. Culture affects their perception of stuttering and willingness to seek treatment (Hartung & Lefler, 2019).
  3. There are gender differences in stuttering incidences
  4. Age also affects the course of the disease
  5. Those who start earlier are likely to develop persistent suffering (Ali et al., 2019)
  6. Social stigmatization
  7. It may make them feel depressed and anxious (Ali et al., 2019)

Pharmacological treatments, including side effects

  1. Not recommended
  2. FDA has not approved any treatments for stuttering
  3. Treatments may be to manage associated symptoms
  4. For instance, antidepressants for depression
  5. Medical professionals should monitor the side effects closely (Sommer et al., 2021).

Non-pharmacological treatments

  1. Speech therapy is the gold treatment standard (Ali et al., 2019).
  2. Improves speech fluency, communication skills, and confidence
  3. Requires constant practice
  • May be expensive
  1. Relaxation techniques
  2. Deep breathing and mindfulness
  3. Easy to perform
  • Helps to get rid of anxiety
  1. Available on the internet
  2. Support from electronic devices
  3. Provide auditory feedback
  4. Encourages self-learning
  • Easy to get and use
  1. Providing relaxing environments
  2. For children to feel comfortable speaking (Ali et al., 2019).
  3. Extra tutoring for children at school
  4. Teachers should recognize and assess stutters’ needs separately from the rest (Ali et al., 2019).
  5. Education for family and affected individuals
  6. Raise awareness about the condition
  7. Provide strategies to support affected individuals (Ali et al., 2019).

Diagnostics and labs

  1. Diagnostics and labs are not typically required for diagnosis
  2. Diagnosis is based on specific speech and language behaviors characteristic of stuttering

DSM 5 criteria

  1. Identifies repetitions, broken words, avoiding problematic words, blocks of pauses in speech, words with excess physical tension
  2. The disturbance causes anxiety when speaking
  3. Looks at the onset of the symptoms
  4. Disturbance in speech is unrelated to other health issues (Ali et al., 2019).
  5. Comprehensive assessment to rule out other possible causes of dysfluency (Ali et al., 2019).
  6. Assessment of medical, psychological, and developmental history
  7. Speech and language evaluation and observations of communication behaviors in different contexts (Ali et al., 2019).


  1. Children with a childhood-onset fluency disorder may develop other speech and language disorders.
  2. Also, they are at risk for having ADHD or autism spectrum disorder
  3. Anxiety and depression due to social stigma (Ali et al., 2019)
  4. A thorough evaluation of the overall developmental profile is important to rule out/address any comorbidities (Ali et al., 2019).

Legal and ethical considerations

  1. Children may experience difficulties in school, social, and employment settings due to speech difficulties (Sommer et al., 2021).
  2. Advocacy to ensure appropriate accommodations and support
  3. Healthcare professionals should comply with ethical standards of justice, beneficence, autonomy, and beneficence
  4. They must maintain patient confidentiality
  5. Cultural sensitivity

Pertinent patient education considerations

  1. Education and resources about the disorder, causes, and treatments
  2. Information on the strategies for managing stuttering can be beneficial
  3. Support and encouragement important for child and family members
  4. Educate peers, educators, and others about stuttering and effective communication strategies
  5. Public education to end stigma and discrimination
  6. Support groups or advocacy organizations can provide additional resources and support.



Ali, M., Saad, E., & Kamel, O. (2019). Childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering): an interruption in the flow of speaking. International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences |, 8(3), 11–13. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED602309.pdf

Deb, S. S., Roy, M., Bachmann, C., & Bertelli, M. O. (2022). Specific Learning Disorders, Motor Disorders, and Communication Disorders. In Textbook of Psychiatry for Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder (pp. 483-511). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-95720-3_18

Hartung, C. M., & Lefler, E. K. (2019). Sex and gender in psychopathology: DSM–5 and beyond. Psychological bulletin145(4), 390. https://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/145/4/390/

Sommer, M., Waltersbacher, A., Schlotmann, A., Schröder, H., & Strzelczyk, A. (2021). Prevalence and therapy rates for stuttering, cluttering, and developmental disorders of speech and language: Evaluation of german health insurance data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.645292


Product Differentiation


Making strategic decisions are part of the territory when it comes to the job of an analyst. You’ll need to decide what to do in a given circumstance and then answer questions to explain your decisions. Let’s say you are a Strategic Analyst for a Fortune 500 Company, and your CEO has asked you how to position a specific business and product line to gain a competitive advantage in a single market. This scenario is the foundation of lessons 5, 6, 7, 8, covered in the textbook.

Part A: Product Differentiation

Part A refers to the material discussed in Lesson 5 of this course. Using logical, clear writing, do the following:

  1. Define product differentiation and discuss the role that customer perceptions play in product differentiation.
  2. Identify the three broad categories of product differentiation and two bases of differentiation under each category.
  3. Explain the relationship between product differentiation and managerial creativity.

Part B: Flexibility and Real Options

Part B refers to the material discussed in Lesson 6 of this course. Using logical, clear writing, answer the following:

  1. What is strategic flexibility? Why is it thought of as a third generic business-level strategy?
  2. What are strategic options?
  3. What are real options?

Part C: Collusion

Part C refers to the material discussed in Lesson 7 of this course. Using logical, clear writing, answer the following:

  1. What is collusion?
  2. What are the two types of collusion and how are they different?
  3. How does signaling relate to collusion?

Part D: Vertical Integration

Part D refers to the material discussed in Lesson 8 of this course. Using logical, clear writing, do the following:

  1. Define vertical integration and differentiate between forward vertical integration and backward vertical integration.
  2. Identify the three fundamental explanations of how vertical integration can create value and discuss how value is created under each.
  3. Identify three reasons a firm may be able to create value through vertical integration when most of its competitors are not able to create value through vertical integration.



For a business to become a market leader, it must implement strategies that will propel it to achieve that vision. Strategies are the decisions and actions taken to improve the competitive advantage of the firm in the market. Product differentiation is one of the strategies that a firm can use, in which the firm uniquely distinguishes its products or services from those of their competitors by identifying and communicating the unique qualities of their products to make them more attractive to their target market. A business also needs to respond timely to changes in the external environment brought about by the competitive forces. This type of flexibility helps the business adapt to changes and remain competitive. Firms also need to understand how vertical integration can create value and whether less or more vertical integration will be valuable under certain circumstances.

Product Differentiation

            Product differentiation is a business strategy in which firms increase the supposed value of their products or services relative to those of their competitors in order to gain competitive advantage (Pride & Ferrell, 2021). In this case, product differentiation creates brand loyalty and enables a firm to generate more revenue by selling its products at relatively higher prices. Customer perception is the ultimate defining factor in product differentiation. For product differentiation to be successful, customers must perceive the different characteristics of a product from another in order to determine the fundamental superior value a specific product can offer over another substitute. Products with extra features such as high quality or performance are given more preference, and customers may pay more for these extra features. There are other benefits that have a big influence on customer perception such as maintenance, customer assistance, appealing payment options, and training. Consumers value these additional benefits while purchasing the products. It is important for a firm to monitor consumer references and perceptions in order to develop strategies that address these issues to effectively meet their needs.

Product differentiation can be achieved based on three broad categories (Barney & Hesterly, 2022). The first category is based on the attributes of a firm’s products or services. In this category, a product can be differentiated on the basis of its generic features by constantly trying to modify them to differentiate them with their competitors’ products. This may be in terms of unique design or high performance. Another basis of product differentiation in this category is based on product complexity in which a product is enhanced with extra features that improve its performance relative to that of competitors. The second broad category is based on the relationship between the firm and its customers. One type of differentiation in this category is product customization in which products are tailor-made for particular customer applications (Barney & Hesterly, 2022). Another type of differentiation is consumer marketing in which the firms attempt to alter the perception of consumers on particular products through advertising and other means of consumer marketing. The third broad category is based on focusing on the links within and between firms. One way of differentiating a product in this category is linking different functions within a firm by coordinating these functions to produce a product that integrates different specialties. Another way involves linkages with other firms in which one firm’s products are linked with the products and services of another firm.

Product differentiation and managerial creativity go hand in hand as differentiation is the expressed creativity of the personnel within a firm. Product differentiation is a continuous process and limitless in perspectives. It can only be limited by the opportunities that exist or those that can be created and is dependent on the ability and willingness of the personnel within a firm to explore new opportunities.

Flexibility and Real Options

Strategic flexibility is the capacity of a business to adjust to changes in its internal and external environment by dedicating the necessary resources to respond to those changes (Hitt etal., 2019). It is regarded as a third generic business level strategy as it is focused on how an individual firm can compete in the market, for instance, by improving innovation to develop competitive advantage. Strategic options are creative plans or corporate strategies that a firm uses to achieve long-term goals (Hitt etal., 2019). Some of these options include product and market development, innovation, integration, joint ventures, concentric and conglomerate diversification, turnaround, divestiture, and liquidation. Real options are economically valuable rights of management to make or abandon some choices concerning projects or investment opportunities which include decisions to expand, defer, wait, or abandon a project. They typically reference projects that involve tangible assets such as land, buildings, and machinery.


Collusion is a non-competitive mutual agreement between rival firms to disrupt market equilibrium by conspiring to work together to gain an unfair advantage (Peng, 2022). For instance, competing firms may conspire to reduce the quantity of products they produce in order to create a shortage that drives prices up. The two types of collusion are tacit collusion and explicit collusion. Tacit collusion arises when firms coordinate their decisions on production and pricing by exchanging signals with other firms, other than through direct communication (Peng, 2022). Explicit collusion, on the other hand, occurs when firms directly communicate with each other to harmonize their production and price levels.

Signaling is a method of indirect communication where participants in a market send information based on the actions they take or the announcements they make (Peng, 2022). Signaling propagates tacit collusion as firms can exchange signals with the intent to cooperate in collusion.

Vertical Integration

Vertical integration is a strategy in which a firm tries to extend its operations by taking direct control of its value chain (Henry, 2021). Vertical integration can either be forward vertical integration or backward vertical integration. Forward vertical integration occurs when a firm takes control of more stages in the supply chain that bring it closer to the end of the supply chain. On the other hand, backward vertical integration occurs when a firm assimilates more stages of the supply chain that bring it closer to accessing raw materials.

There are several fundamental ways in which vertical integration can generate value for a firm. First, vertical integration can minimize the occurrence of opportunism, where a firm is capitalized on in an exchange, reducing its economic value (Barney & Hesterly, 2022). A firm can eliminate opportunism by vertically integrating into such an exchange, enabling the management to keep tabs on the exchange, rather than relying on external forces to control it. Second, vertical integration can enable a firm to generate competitive advantage based on its capabilities. Firms can gain competitive advantage by vertically integrating into business ventures where they have resources that are rare, valuable, and costly to imitate (Barney & Hesterly, 2022). This makes it possible for such firms to make profits by using their capabilities to exploit environmental opportunities available to them. Third, vertical integration allows for less flexibility. Less flexibility is valuable in situations where the decision making is certain and where the firm has committed its resources to a particular way of doing business because it prevents the firm from vertically integrating into exchanges that may not turn out to be valuable.

A firm may be able to create value through vertical integration when most of its competitors are unable to. First, a company can achieve this by engaging in transaction specific investments such as the development of a new technology or a new way of doing business. A firm that engages in such transaction-specific investments may create value and develop competitive advantage through vertical integration compared to firms that do not take such measures (Barney & Hesterly, 2022). Secondly, firms that have rare and valuable capabilities can have competitive advantage over rival firms that do not. Vertically integrating into businesses that exploit these rare capabilities can enable a firm create value compared to a firm that does not possess such capabilities. Lastly, a firm may be able to create value by integrating vertically if it is able to resolve some rare uncertainties sooner than its competitors.


A firm’s ability to thrive and prosper in a competitive market depends on its ability to select and implement effective strategies. Implementing good strategies enables a firm to gain competitive advantage and become a leader in the market. Firms should, therefore, choose their strategies carefully and systematically before implementing them to reduce the likelihood of making mistakes. Firms should also carefully consider the strategic choices available to them which fall within business-level strategies such as product differentiation, and corporate-level strategies such as vertical integration. Such strategies should align with the firm’s mission, vision, and objectives.


Barney, J. B. and Hesterly, W. S. (2022). Strategic management and competitive advantage: concepts and cases. Pearson.

Henry, A. (2021). Understanding strategic management. Oxford University Press.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., and Hoskisson, R. E. (2019). Strategic management: competitiveness & globalization concepts. Cengage Learning.

Peng, M. W. (2022). Global business. Cengage Learning.

Pride, W. M., and Ferrell, O. C. (2021). Foundations of marketing. Cengage.

Schizophrenia Case Study

Schizophrenia Case Study
As part of his internship, Trey is working night intake at a psychiatric hospital in a
medium-sized college town. It’s been pretty quiet all evening until a little after 1 am,
when he hears shouting in the outer hallway.
Trey looks at Lisa, his fellow student intern, who says, “What’s going on out there?”
A moment later the doors burst open, and a young man, who looks about 18 years old, is
escorted in to the intake desk. He is agitated and has tears on his face, but he is not
showing signs of violence or aggression, beyond the brief shouting he did out in the
He plunks himself down in the chair across from the intake desk and buries his face in his
hands, rocking slightly and moaning. He has a slight body odor and is perspiring heavily.
“He’s all yours,” Lisa whispers.
Trey ignores her and moves quickly to the intake desk. Lisa runs off to find the
supervising nurse, who has gone on break.
“Hey there,” Trey says calmly, bending over to look into the patient’s eyes. “I’m Trey.
What’s up?”
He is almost surprised when the patient stops rocking, sits up, and lowers his hands.
“Hey,” he says quietly. “I’m Matt, and this is hell, dude.”
“Not quite,” Trey smiles. “I’m here to help. Can you tell me what’s happened?”
“I’m going all to pieces,” Matt says, “little screws and bolts and debris flying off
Trey says nothing; he just waits.
“I had kind of a breakdown in my dorm,” Matt says. “I threw my laptop out the window.”
“Ooh, that’s rough. Bad night, huh?”
“Bad week, bad month, bad year, bad bad life. Bad bad bad bad bad bad bad bad BA-A-
“What happened?”
“Where you wanna start?”
In fits and starts, Matt conveys small clues that hint at his story.
Matt has always been a “nerd,” he says, according to his older brothers. As a child he
often withdrew from play groups at school to play on his own. In isolation, he has always
managed to perform well academically, but in group work or group assignments, he has
tended to resort to outbursts and a refusal to participate. He says that he has always
been awkward in social situations and has always found it hard to carry on “a good,
rewarding conversation.”
“And I’m freakin’ clumsy. Klutzy. A klutz,” he says, looking everywhere but at Trey. “I’m
the opposite of an athlete, the opposite of my brothers.”
Although his speech is frequently eccentric, Matt manages to convey a very brief picture
of how, because of his withdrawal, negative thoughts, and social awkwardness, people
tend to leave him on his own, both at large extended family gatherings or social
functions in his family’s community and place of worship.
In his senior year of high school, Matt’s grades and SAT scores gained him entrance to a
leading Midwest university—despite his disruptive problems.
Matt had been looking forward to going away to school, hoping that part of his problems
“fitting in” had to do with his family’s “obscenely proper prominence” in the community,
and his older brothers’ “super-dude images, which,” he says, “I will never live up to.”
“At the same time,” he says during intake, “I was also pretty nervous, pretty stressed,
pretty freaked out, pretty freaky.”
In his first week of college, Matt found orientation week “disorienting,” he jokes with a
slight smile. “Orientation disoriented me. It dissed me. I got dissed. There were people
everywhere, like climbing-the-walls-and-on-top-of-you everywhere.”
Except when Trey first initiated conversation, Matt, for the most part, has worked to
avoid eye contact and continually bounces his left leg nervously. He is gripping the arms
of his chair and looks as if he’s about to fly right out of it.
“My roommate is a jock,” he says. “Jocular jock. Oh, Jocularity, wouldn’t you know they’d
put me with a jocular—not-so-very-jocular—jock. They plan that stuff, you know. Just to
keep me from escaping, from making a fresh start. Guy’s a jerk, and now, here I am.” He
grins and expands his arms, gesturing the psychiatric ward around him.
“And now here I am, just 8 weeks into my first semester away from home, and I’ve just
been admitted for totally breaking down, shooting laptop missiles from the second
freakin’ floor. They win.”
1. Where should Trey focus Matts attention and conversation during the intake
assessment (Name 2)? Is allowing Matt to discuss childhood information
beneficial? Why or Why not?
2. What information acquired during the interview about Matts behavior are
significant in terms of potential for psychosis or schizophrenia (Name 4)


  1. Where should Trey focus Matt’s attention and conversation during the intake assessment

To make a comprehensive assessment, Try should focus Matt’s attention and conversation on his history and current mental status. According to Carniaux Moran (2008), acquiring the bio psychosocial history of a client offers the nurse with their physical, psychological and social history. This is from information about their education, family, and chief complaint among others. Focusing on Matt’s mental status will help identify his mood, emotions, through process, behavior and knowledge among others.

Allowing Matt to discuss childhood information

Allowing Matt to discuss childhood information is beneficial as it may provide clues and links to when the behaviors started and also help in making a diagnosis. According to Carniaux Moran (2008), childhood traumas may affect brain development which may cause a psychiatric illness. In addition, the information will help the psychiatric nurse determine the client’s ability to sustain relationships. Those with wide social networks are identified to have a less severe mental illness than those who have no social network.

Information acquired during the interview about Matts behavior that is significant in potential diagnosis for psychosis or schizophrenia.

  1. Bizarre behavior and posture where he throws laptop out the window, sits in the chair and grips on the arms looking as if he is about to fly right out of it.
  2. He has delusions and is convinced that ‘they’ (including the roommate) are planning to keep him from escaping and making a fresh start.
  3. He has an irregular eccentric speech where he gives his story in fits and starts meaning his thinking is disorganized.
  4. He doesn’t make eye contact with Trey, has socially isolated, seems to have neglected his personal hygiene as he has body odor and has lost interest in daily activities. According to American Nurse (2016), these are negative symptoms that may help in diagnosis.

Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary care for Schizophrenia Disorders and how each can be applied to Matt.

According to the NCLEX client needs category, Matt needs a Safe, Effective Care Environment, Health Promotion and Maintenance, Psychosocial Integrity and Physiological Integrity (National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2004).  After the assessment and diagnosis by the primary care psychiatric nurse, antipsychotic medication may be offered to Matt to reduce severity of psychotic symptoms. However, he will also be assigned secondary care from a specialist team comprising a psychiatrist, psychologist and a social worker. They will provide further treatment, special care and support. However, if the mental illness is still severe, Matt may be admitted to a psychiatric ward for intense monitoring and to protect others.


American Nurse. (2016). Psychiatric assessment strategies for inpatients: Resources with a purpose. Retrieved from: https://www.myamericannurse.com/psychiatric-assessment-strategies-inpatients-resources-purpose/

Carniaux Moran, C. (2008). The psychiatric nursing assessment. Psychiatric mental health nursing: An introduction to theory and practice, Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://samples.jblearning.com/0763744344/44344_CH03_039_064.pdf

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (2004). NCLEX-RN® examination test plan. Chicago: NCSBN Retrieved from: https://www.cgfns.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Client-Needs-Categories.pdf