High quality anonymization in Big Data

Think through the reading on privacy. Both the MK book and articles focus on issues around anomization. Think about the Netflix prize and Geo-location data obtained by the NYT. How important do you think high quality anonymization is going to be to the future of Big Data for use by researchers, industry and government? Do you think there are cases where actors like the government should be able to pierce privacy? Think about how much you value privacy when answering the above questions, contextualize it for your own life.


Big Data and Privacy

Data anonymization entails protecting sensitive and private data and information through encryption or erasure of identifiers that link an individual to the data stored. For instance, Personally Identifiable Information like social security numbers, names, and phone numbers, if run through anonymization, could help safeguard one’s privacy. According to Arbuckle and El (2020), big data affects operations in the healthcare, transport, and communication sectors among other industries. However, big data and data privacy go in hand. Governments control and regularly assess how companies collect, process, store, and utilize the public’s private information. Data anonymization is fundamental in big data privacy. If well-choreographed, data anonymization enables one to identify one given entry point in a large dataset.

High quality big data anonymization will be important in future to governments, researchers, and industries as it safeguards data against insider exploitation and misuse. According to Weber et al. (2018), governments or researchers issue regulations and rules on big data. Anonymization comes in handy to enforce such regulations on big data. Anonymization also helps governments and companies maintain the public’s trust as it provides foolproof methods of securing personal, sensitive, and confidential data. Governments hold extremely complex data that require caution and confidentiality in its handling which can only be guaranteed through big data anonymization. Anonymization also helps big data enforce consistency and governance. Anonymization maintains accurate and clean data on behalf of the public. According to Arbuckle and El (2020), anonymization safeguards data both in databases and in public platforms such as apps and web applications. Anonymization of data prevents companies from personalizing user experience or implementing marketing designed for given customers.

There are cases where actors like the government should be able to pierce privacy.  For instance, governments could pierce privacy if the public’s security is at stake. Cybercriminals or hackers’ data stored by government or companies could be availed if the need arises for the public’s safety. According to Birkinshaw et al. (2019), the government might also pierce privacy if they need access to private information regarding outlawed people or gangs that terrorize the public. However, government employees should not pierce or access private data for individual gains like spreading campaign propaganda.


Arbuckle, L., & El, E. K. (2020). Building an Anonymization Pipeline: Creating Safe Data. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media, Incorporated.

Birkinshaw, P., Varney, M., & Bloomsbury Professional. (2019). Government and information: The law relating to access, disclosure and regulation. London: Bloomsbury Professional.

Weber, R. H., & Heinrich, U. I. (2018). Anonymization. London: Springer London.

The Occurrence of Nightmares

Essay #3: Research Paper – ENC1102

The essay will require the use of at least 3 unique secondary sources. These sources must be from highly reputable websites only and must be primarily scholarly. Include an MLA-style Works Cited page and in-text citations. This paper should be roughly 3 high quality pages (800 word minimum). The essay may not exceed 20% direct quotation.

The topic: Nightmares can also be a very interesting issue to discuss in research papers on dreams. Psychologists relate nightmares to the field of “unconscious”. Very often, people forget about the stressful situations they once had. However, those situations are reflected in their minds and they can appear in dreams. You may also find other points of view on nightmares and discuss them in your research paper on dreams.


The Occurrence of Nightmares

Nightmares are vivid, realistic, and disturbing dreams that may be upsetting, threatening, and bothersome, sometimes causing people distress and affecting their well-being. Dreams are the brain’s way of processing experiences and emotions. They are part of the mind’s default network that stays active during quiet periods, especially REM sleep. When someone is stressed, anxious, or depressed over a particular issue, the brain may process these feelings and emotions during REM sleep, when nightmares tend to happen. Therefore, an individual’s feeling, emotions, and experiences impact their dreams. Nightmares can reveal relatively difficult periods and encounters. Different environmental stressors coupled with inherent individual vulnerability alter brain functioning, triggering nightmares.

Causes of Nightmares

Nightmares are often associated with negative feelings, including fear, stress, and anxiety. They are particularly prevalent in children, given that they are vulnerable to more threats than adults. As such, nightmares may reflect this vulnerability (Edwards). They are a revelation of emotional and mental problems associated with stress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. They can happen for various reasons ranging from scary encounters, psychiatric disorders, medication side effects, past individual experiences, irregular sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder, and unmet psychological needs.

The most studied cause of nightmares is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Akkaoui et al., chronic nightmares are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. Although the relationship between nightmares and distinct psychiatric disorders is not well established, the connection with post-traumatic stress disorder is well established (Akkaoui et al.). Individuals with PTSD are likelier than individuals without PTSD to have exact replays of the traumatic events affecting them. In such cases, the brain region involved in identifying potential threats, including the amygdala, may be overly sensitive or overactive.

Altered Brain Effect

Rapid Eye Movement and the Cortisol Hormone

Distinct areas of the brain are associated with Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. During REM sleep, when people experience bizarre dreams and nightmares, the brain wave activity operates at a level similar to wakefulness. Here, the thalamus sends sounds, images, and other sensations. The cortisol hormone is also high late at night. The hormone affects the interaction between the neocortex and the hippocampus, an interaction that impacts memory consolidation. Therefore, the cortisol hormone’s preferential consolidation of salient memories can influence the content of dreams and nightmares. This interaction also implies that nightmares are not random but reflect thoughts, emotions, and experiences.

The Amygdala

The brain regions associated with fear behaviors, such as the amygdala, also play a role in stress- and trauma-related nightmares. The amygdala, which identifies potential threats, can become overly sensitive and overactive after recent exposure to trauma. According to Scarpelli et al., the amygdala is intensively active during REM sleep, and plays a pivotal role in regulating emotions such as fear and anxiety. In individuals experiencing great exposure to trauma or facing distinct emotional issues, REM sleep may amplify the amygdala’s altered function, resulting in more dysphoric dreams. Therefore, dysfunction or altered function of this part of the brain explains nightmares in people with mental and emotional problems. In children, the dysfunction of the hippocampal-amygdala-prefrontal circuit, which controls memory formation and fears, also causes nightmares.

Neuro-cognitive Model and Frontal Regulatory Deficits

According to Carr et al., nightmares are thought to result from executive function deficits, especially in arousal regulation. People who experience frequent nightmares show these impaired executive functions. A study conducted in 2017 on the neurocognitive model found that specific frontal regulatory deficits correlate with nightmares (Carr and Nielsen). A separate study supporting and complementing this argument found that people who experience frequent nightmares show decreased frontal activity (Marquis et al. ). This indicates a possible overlap in brain functions, hormones, and mechanisms associated with distress when awake and nightmare dysphoria at night.

Essentially, the psychological and neuro-cognitive model of nightmares aligns with the diathesis-stress model, which posits that psychological disorders result from inherent interaction between environmental stressors and individual vulnerability (Carr et al.). The alignment is in the sense that individuals facing great distress are more vulnerable to developing frequent nightmares. Distress from adverse personal experiences and trauma has similar effects to distinct personality traits, including neuroticism and hyperarousal. The cognitive model of recurrent dreams further posits that when the brain replays patterns of stressful events, including those that have faded from waking consciousness, it creates loops, causing recurrent nightmares.


In conclusion, psychologists relate nightmares to unconsciousness. The human brain often tends to suppress stressful and traumatic events and situations, making these memories inaccessible in a state of consciousness. The brain essentially blocks the memory to protect the individual from trauma, shock, and stress. This functioning of the brain partly explains nightmares following traumatic events. Distinct factors, including past individual experiences, psychiatric disorders, medication side effects, and irregular sleep, alter the function of certain parts of the brain and trigger nightmares.

Works Cited

Akkaoui, Marine Ambar, et al. “Nightmares in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Disorders: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 9.12 (2020): 1-23.

Carr, Michelle and Tore Nielsen. “A novel differential susceptibility framework for the study of nightmares: Evidence for trait sensory processing sensitivity.” Clinical Psychology Review (2017): 86-96.

Carr, Michelle, et al. “Frontal Brain Activity and Subjective Arousal During Emotional Picture Viewing in Nightmare Sufferers.” Frontiers in Neuroscience 14 (2020): 1-7. <https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.585574>.

Edwards, Scott. “Nightmares and the Brain.” 2015. Harvard Medical School. 8 December 2022. <https://hms.harvard.edu/news-events/publications-archive/brain/nightmares-brain>.

Marquis, Louis-Philippe, et al. “Nightmare severity is inversely related to frontal brain activity during waking state picture viewing15, 253–264. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7.” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 15 (2019): 253-264.

Scarpelli, Serena, et al. “The Functional Role of Dreaming in Emotional Processes.” Frontiers in Psychology 10.459 (2019): 1-16. <https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00459>.

Cliff notes

For this project, you will choose a journal article addressing an alternative or complementary therapy or theory of health.

For this project, you will choose a journal article addressing an alternative or complementary therapy or theory of health.

The book or journal article needs to be published within 5 years by a credentialed author(s) and be about a specific CAM therapy not just a general book or article about therapies.

You must read the entire book and post a one (1-2) pages cliff-note of the of the journal article and post a detailed summary of the article.


*** You must write a 1 to 2 pages cliff notes ( a summary of the article make sure you talk about all the sub-headings in the article example intro, stroke,HTN


*** THE ARTICLE IS THE ONE THAT I ATTACHED IS CALLE “Role of complementary and alternative medicine in geriatric care: A mini review”

Chiropractic Therapy: Article Analysis

Experiences With Chiropractic Care for Patients with Low Back or Neck Pain by Hays et al. (2020) analyzes the use of chiropractic therapy on patients with musculoskeletal disorders. It evaluates the appropriateness of mobilization and manipulation in handling neck and low back pain. The authors aimed to examine patient experience and provide a brief background of musculoskeletal disorders, their prevalence, and health impacts in the introduction section. They cite numerous studies in relation to and in support of this research. Previous studies on the use of this non-invasive treatment method on patients with spinal pain show better patient outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and high levels of efficiency.

The article’s authors used a multistage systematic stratified sampling method and recruited patients through providers in six states. They used journal announcements, social media, emails, chiropractic conferences, and snowball sampling to recruit providers through which they invited patients to participate. The researchers successfully recruited 1853 patients with chronic low back and neck pain. Data collection, as discussed in the analysis plan, involved using an online questionnaire after three months of treatment to assess patient experiences. The online questionnaire assessed seven patient-reported measures and CAHPS items.

This study’s results indicated high levels of satisfaction with chiropractic care. Mean patient experience measures ranged from 81 for insurance experience to 95 for administrative assistance. These means are relatively high for the said participants and support past studies on the same. The authors also compared the results to a previous CAHPS survey in which chiropractic patients reported better experiences than traditional medical patients. As part of the discussion, the authors explain that this study’s findings support the use of chiropractic therapy to improve the well-being and functioning of patients with neck and low back pain. It also contributes to the current literature by providing evidence that neck and lower back pain patients have a generally positive experience with chiropractic therapy. Therefore, this article thoroughly analyzes the impact of chiropractic therapy on patients and their experiences with the treatment, supporting the hypothesis that chiropractic therapy is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.


Hays, R. D., Sherbourne, C. D., Spritzer, K. L., Hilton, L. G., Ryan, G. W., Coulter, I. D., & Herman, P. M. (2020). Experiences With Chiropractic Care for Patients With Low Back or Neck Pain. Journal of Patient Experience, 7(3), 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1177/2374373519846022

Total Quality Initiative

One of the philosophies mentioned in your text includes the strategy of Plan, Do, Check, and Act. Please keep this philosophy in mind when considering the information required below.

1.      Discuss the premise of TQ. Then, design a TQ initiative for a company of your choosing, outlining steps that will provide internal and external support for your initiative.

2.      Outline a plan for a team meeting with your managers, and elaborate how together you will disseminate this plan to the entire company.

3.      Evaluate the potential impact of your meeting and the launching of your TQ plan, including two (2) strengths and two (2) weaknesses of the plan.




Introduction to Total Quality 

Nineth Edition

Authors: David L. Goetsch & Stanley B. Davis



In today’s competitive business environment, organizations must take measures that are necessary to outperform their competitors in order to thrive. One way in which organizations can accomplish this is by developing total quality initiatives focused on exceeding customer satisfaction through continuous improvement of the quality of their products and services, work force, processes and environments (Luthra et al., 2021). Quality can only be defined by the customers who buy the product or use the service, and organizations must endeavor to meet and exceed customer expectations.

The Premise of Total Quality and the Design of a Total Quality Initiative for Nike

            The premise of total quality is that the quality of an organization’s products and services is the collective responsibility of all the personnel within the organization. The underlying concepts of total quality are measures, people, and processes with the customer as the central focus (Goetsch & Davis, 2021). The concept of measures emphasizes that quality must be measurable. The concept of people emphasizes that quality applies not only to products and services, but to the people involved in their production. Quality organizations look beyond the quality of their products and services, and understand that quality is built in by a work force that is continually improved and empowered. The process concept specifies that processes must be continually improved as those that are superior today may become inferior in the future.

Designing a total quality initiative for Nike, a leading producer of footwear, sports equipment, and accessories, should be focused on using creative thinking, core competencies and the application of best practices from quality experts (Soundaian, 2021). Total quality is not an individual concept but a comprehensive approach of doing business and for that reason, it should incorporate important concepts such as the Deming’s cycle (plan, do, check, act, analyze), the Juran trilo of quality planning, control, and improvement, as well as Crosby’s fourteen steps to quality improvement. By applying the Deming’s cycle to design the total quality initiative for Nike, the first step would be planning (Rieder & Lawson, 2020). This involves conducting consumer research which should identify who the customers are, as well as their needs. The second step would be producing a product that meets and exceeds customer expectations identified in the research phase. The third step would involve checking the product to ensure that it was produced in alignment with the plan (Rieder & Lawson, 2020). The fourth step would involve acting on the quality initiative by communicating the results of the plan to the entire organization, as well as marketing the product. The final step would involve analyzing the performance of the product in the market on the basis of quality, cost, and other criteria. The design of this total quality initiative would leverage partnering and strategic alliances to obtain internal and external support. This calls for cooperation between the organization and its suppliers, customers, employees, and even potential competitors whose support can be obtained through strategic alliances.

A Plan Outline for Meeting with Managers and the Dissemination Of the plan to the Entire Company

            A meeting with the management should be called in order to brief them on the requirements of the total quality initiative, obtain their commitment, and establish a timeline for implementation (Goetsh & Davis, 2021). Some key concepts that should be emphasized during such a meeting are internal and external customer focus, employee empowerment and involvement, teamwork, leadership, decision-making, and problem solving and prevention. The management’s role in the success of the total quality initiative should not be underrated (Luthra et al., 2021). The management can enhance the implementation of the quality initiative by making quality a key value in the strategic planning process, making decisions with respect to their effect on quality, incorporating quality standards in job descriptions, and discussing quality in team meetings. In addition, the team together with the management should develop appropriate ways of disseminating the plan to the entire organization by maintaining quality awareness as an important cultural issue, empowering employees, encouraging self-development, leading in strategic planning for quality, keeping the employees involved, and rewarding behaviors that nurture the quality culture (Goetsch & Davis, 2021). The steering team and the management should ascertain that every employee in the organization understands the reasons why total quality is being implemented to avoid employee resistance. This can be accomplished by communicating through newsletters, meetings, special bulletins, as well as organizing seminars and conferences.

The Potential Impact of the Meeting, Launching of the TQ plan, and the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Plan

             The meeting serves to communicate the requirements of the plan, and the expected outcome resulting in management support for the initiative (Goetsch & Davis, 2021). Management is critical in the implementation of the initiative as employees develop their sentiments concerning quality, based on management’s commitment, support and engagement in the process. Management support leads to the adoption of total quality initiatives that make a significant improvement on the ability of a company to compete.

While launching the total quality plan, several strengths and weaknesses can be identified. One of the strengths of this initiative is that it is strategically based. The strategic plan is aimed at giving an organization competitive advantage in the market (Goetsch & Davis, 2021). A total quality initiative based on the strategic plan enables a company to achieve competitive advantage owing to its high level of quality while continually improving on it. The second strength of the initiative is management commitment and support. With the support of management, the initiative can accomplish fundamental changes in quality improvement (Goetsch & Davis, 2021). This can be further attributed to management’s role in encouraging teamwork, empowering employees and involving them in decision-making, providing education and training, and applying scientific approaches to decision-making and problem-solving.

One weaknesses of the initiative is the high cost of time (Soundian, 2021). The total quality timeline may be extensive in terms of training and implementation, prior to accomplishing the desired results and benefits. It may take a significant amount of time before the desired outcomes are actually realized, which presents a challenge in a world that is continually changing. The second weakness is the assumption that all of the management will be proponents of the initiative which may not be the case. In this respect, an analysis of the opponents and proponents should be done prior to presenting the initiative in order to address the concerns raised.


            Total quality is a fundamental approach of improving the overall quality of products, services, and processes of an organization to improve its competitiveness in the market. A total quality initiative is important as it helps organization improve their overall performance through continual improvement. Organizations that hope to continue competing in today’s marketplace must thus improve continually on the quality of their products, services, processes, and environments.


Goetsch, D. L., and Davis, S. (2021). Quality management for organizational excellence: introduction to total quality. Boston: Pearson.

Rieder, L. and Lawson, R. A. (2020). Management control with integrated planning: models and implementation for sustainable coordination. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.100 7/978-3-030-48

Soundaian, S. (2021). New dimensions of management. Darya Ganj, Delhi: MJP PUBLISHERS.

Luthra, S., Garg, D., Agarwal, A., and Mangla, S. K. (2021). Total quality management (tqm): principles methods and applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.